We are happy when for everything inside us there is a corresponding something outside us.
William B. Yeats
این جمله زیبا از ویلیام باتلر ییتس شاعر شهیر ایرلندی و برنده جایزه نوبل سال ۱۹۲۳ است که یکی از دوستان کانادایی ام او را به من معرفی کرد.
این شعر عاشقانه زیبا از او را هم ببینید:Autumn is over the long leaves that love us,
Ti amo milla
Echanges d'expérience sur la rénovation urbaine-
Le 15 mai/25 ordibehesht a eu lieu une journée d'études sur le thème: Echanges d'expérience sur la rénovation urbaine. Cette journée, qui a été organisée par Sâzeman-e nosâzi -ye shahr-e Tehran (Organisation de la rénovation urbaine de la ville de Téhéran) avec la collaboration de l'IFRI, s'est déroulée au siège de l'association.
در سال ۲۰۰۴ یک گروه مطالعاتی در دانشگاه MIT زیر نظر فرانک گری شروع به طراحی یک سری خودروهای پایدار در جهت حفظ محیط زیست کردند و در اکتبر همان سال نمایشگاهی از این اثار تشکیل دادند.
البته گاهی این طرحها حالت فشیون را هم پیدا کرده ولی در کل تجربه جالبی است که می توان به آن توجه کرد.
دکتر محمد مصدق- دکتر حسین فاطمی
خیابان آریامهر سابق که امروز با نام دکتر فاطمی آذین گشته مرا بر آن داشت تا از سرنوشت این مبارز وارسته جویا شوم، آنچه یافتم بسیار برایم دردآور بود، توصیف این همه ظلم که بر یک دلسوخته راه وطن رفته ورای تحمل ذات انسانی است.
تیرباران آن هم با تب ۴۰ درجه
نامگذاری یک خیابان به یاد این مبارز و سیاستمدار تنها یک یادمان کوچک است از او...
(دستور اعدام فاطمی، از لندن صادر شده بود. در سند 104584 /371/ FO به تاریخ 30 سپتامبر 1953 سفارت بریتانیا در بیروت- که در آن زمان ستاد مشترک عملیات ایتنلیجنت سرویس بود – به وزارت امور خارجه انگلیس ، چنین گفته شده است:
« تاآنجا که از مطالب روزنامه ها استنباط کرده ام، اوضاع آن قدرها هم بد پیش نمی رود... مصدق مشکل ایجاد خواهد کرد، با توجه به اینکه در حمام خون کشته نشد، به نظرمن، بهترین راه حل برای او تبعید است... اما در مورد فاطمی، اگردستگیرشود بهترین راه حل اعدام است...)
برای ادامه سایت جبهه ملی راببینید
برای دیدن اطلاعات بیشتر روی ادامه مطلب کلیک کنید.
Carl Gustav Jung was born July 26, 1875, in the small Swiss village of Kessewil. His father was Paul Jung, a country parson, and his mother was Emilie Preiswerk Jung. He was surrounded by a fairly well educated extended family, including quite a few clergymen and some eccentrics as well.
The elder Jung started Carl on Latin when he was six years old, beginning a long interest in language and literature -- especially ancient literature. Besides most modern western European languages, Jung could read several ancient ones, including Sanskrit, the language of the original Hindu holy books.
Carl was a rather solitary adolescent, who didn't care much for school, and especially couldn't take competition. He went to boarding school in Basel, Switzerland, where he found himself the object of a lot of jealous harassment. He began to use sickness as an excuse, developing an embarrassing tendency to faint under pressure.
Although his first career choice was archeology, he went on to study medicine at the University of Basel. While working under the famous neurologist Krafft-Ebing, he settled on psychiatry as his career.
After graduating, he took a position at the Burghoeltzli Mental Hospital in Zurich under Eugene Bleuler, an expert on (and the namer of) schizophrenia. In 1903, he married Emma Rauschenbach. He also taught classes at the University of Zurich, had a private practice, and invented word association at this time!
Long an admirer of Freud, he met him in Vienna in 1907. The story goes that after they met, Freud canceled all his appointments for the day, and they talked for 13 hours straight, such was the impact of the meeting of these two great minds! Freud eventually came to see Jung as the crown prince of psychoanalysis and his heir apparent.
But Jung had never been entirely sold on Freud's theory. Their relationship began to cool in 1909, during a trip to America. They were entertaining themselves by analyzing each others' dreams (more fun, apparently, than shuffleboard), when Freud seemed to show an excess of resistance to Jung's efforts at analysis. Freud finally said that they'd have to stop because he was afraid he would lose his authority! Jung felt rather insulted.
World War I was a painful period of self-examination for Jung. It was, however, also the beginning of one of the most interesting theories of personality the world has ever seen.
After the war, Jung traveled widely, visiting, for example, tribal people in Africa, America, and India. He retired in 1946, and began to retreat from public attention after his wife died in 1955. He died on June 6, 1961, in Zurich.
There is much literature on Jungian thought. For a good, short and easily accessible introduction to Jung's thought:
Other good introductory texts include:
Good texts in various areas of Jungian thought:
And a more academic text:
For the Jung-Freud relationship:
For critical scholarship on Jung from the perspective of historians of psychiatry:
Works arranged by original publication date if known:
An early writing by Jung, dating from around 1917, was his poetic work, The Seven Sermons To The Dead (Full Text). Written in the persona of the 2nd century religious teacher Basilides of Alexandria, it explores ancient religious and spiritual themes, including those of gnosticism. This work is included in some editions of Memories, Dreams, Reflections.
J. J. Gibson
James Jerome Gibson (January 27, 1904-December 11, 1979), was an American psychologist, considered one of the most important 20th century psychologists in the field of visual perception. In his classic work The Perception of the Visual World (1950) he rejected the fashionable behaviorism for a view based on his own experimental work, which pioneered the idea that animals 'sampled' information from the 'ambient' outside world. He also coined the term 'affordance', meaning the interactive possibilities of a particular object or environment. This concept has been extremely influential in the field of design and ergonomics: see for example the work of Donald Norman who worked with Gibson, and has adapted many of his ideas for his own theories.
In his later work (such as, for example, The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception (1979)), Gibson became more philosophical and criticised cognitivism in the same way he had attacked behaviorism before. Gibson argued strongly in favour of 'direct perception', or 'direct realism' (as pioneered by the Scottish philosopher Thomas Reid), as opposed to cognitivist 'indirect realism'. He termed his new approach ecological psychology. He also rejected the information processing view of cognition. Gibson is increasingly influential on many contemporary movements in psychology, particularly those considered to be post-cognitivist.
Gibson was married to fellow psychologist Eleanor Gibson.
Introduction (pp. 1-6); "Chapter XIII: The Theory of Information Pickup" (pp. 266-286); "Chapter XIV: The Causes of Deficient Perception" (pp. 287-318).
Eleanor J. Gibson
Eleanor J. Gibson (December 7, 1910 - December 30, 2002) was an important American psychologist. Among her contributions to psychology, the most important are the study of perception in infants and toddlers. She is popularly known for the "visual cliff" experiment in which precocial animals, and crawling human infants, showed their ability to perceive depth by avoiding the deep side of a virtual cliff. Along with her husband J. J. Gibson, she forwarded the concept that perceptual learning takes place by differentiation.
The "Visual Cliff" was a wooden table from the edge of which strong plate glass extended, Life magazine reported in 1959. Children were put on the table top and coaxed to crawl out over the glass, the magazine said. But when they got to the edge of the cliff and looked down almost all of them quickly withdrew. Even their mothers' most persuasive urgings could not get them out. Similar studies were done with animals, including rats and kittens.
The findings indicated that perception is an essentially adaptive process, or as Dr. Gibson put it, We perceive to learn, as well as learn to perceive.
In 1982, she was invited to Beijing to teach Chinese psychologists about recent theories and techniques of research.
Benjafield, John G., (1996). The developmental point of view. A history of psychology (pp.235-263). Needham Heights, MA: Simon & Schuster Company.
Myers, David G. (1996). Sensation and perception. In Christine Burne, Laura Rubin, & Chris Migdol (Eds.), Exploring Psychology (pp. 117-161). (3rd ed.) New York, New York: Worth Publishers.
Susanne Katherina Knauth was born in New York, New York to Antonio Knauth, a well-to-do lawyer, and Else M. (Uhlich) Knauth. She received her B.A. from Radcliffe College in 1920, and her PhD in 1926. In 1921 she married William L. Langer, a professor of history at Harvard; they later divorced.
Langer taught philosophy at Radcliffe from 1927 to 1942. She also taught at University of Delaware, Columbia University, New York University, Northwestern University, Ohio State University, University of Washington, and University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. In 1954 she was appointed professor of philosophy at Connecticut College in New London, Connecticut.
With the rise of postmodern theory she is now largely neglected, but she was an important figure in mid-20th century American philosophy. A primary thrust of her main corpus (New Key, Feeling and Form, Mind) was to establish a sound and systematic basis for an understanding of art - one which would reveal causes behind its creation, its value for human consciousness, and sketches of a foundation upon which individual works might be judged and evaluated.
Her efforts to examine art focused in large part upon a rigorous examination of its symbolic structure, chiefly through comparisons of its symbolic workings to those with 'discursive forms' such as language and mathematics. Perhaps most notably, she sought to examine the symbolic forms of art in relationship to natural forms, including those embodied within biological processes.
Langer was also interested in drama, and in Feeling and Form she wrote that drama is a "special poetic mode," and that the dynamism of dramatic action is not so much a result of a play's visible action (mirroring actual experience, which Langer calls "ragged, unaccentuated"), but of its location at the intersection of "the two great realms of envisagement--past and future." Langer writes that a key element of drama is its creation of a "virtual history" that is transparent to an audience, and which can be obliquely, but wholly, apprehended in each moment of action ("we can view each smallest act in its context, as a symptom of character and condition"). Dramatic action contains "latent form" that is suggested or developed in a play, and which comes fully into view only at the end, when it is understood as the fulfillment of Destiny. In short, drama is process of "history coming" rather than "history in retrospect," of motivation rather than causation.
Although she is not frequently cited by professional philosophers, her influence is great to the extent that her doctrine, particularly with respect to presentational symbolic activity, might be said to have become an integral part of the "collective unconsciousness" of many persons concerned with art and music in the English speaking world.
A clear example of her legacy is found in the fifth chapter of neuroscientists' Howard Gardner's 1982 book Art, Mind, and Brain. A Cognitive Approach to Creativity, dedicated exclusively to her thought. Now that neuroscience has begun to sort out some of the distinguishing characteristics of the interplay between right and left hemisphere mental processes, and the way emotion is essential as a mediator, the work of Susan Langer comes to have even deeper significance, and some feel that she may have been ahead of her time.
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